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You’ll find out that nothing is left unanswered. Everything is covered to give you a solid base. This tutorial is designed to bring your from point A to point B without omitting anything.

I don’t believe at the approach of keeping silent the theoretical part in making you believe that piano tuning is easy and just technical. This attitude doesn’t service anyone. Neither you and certainly not the “expert” who delivers it.

There is an interesting theoretical knowledge that you must assimilate to eliminate any insecurity facing the piano tuner trade.

Rest assured, I am good at transmitting the knowledge. I am very curious by nature and science always fascinated me. You will see, I shall convey this passion to you and together, we will have fun!

So don’t be surprised if I teach you how to silently close a door as an example!


“Hi, I’ve taken the course in my home and I’ve learn more in 3 hours than since 1 year and a half learning by myself! ” Mario is really passionate and answer all questions. A must for anyone who wants a solid foundation. Again, thank you Mario.
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Although this tutorial is quite advanced, it is mainly geared towards the complete beginners.

Because I don't believe in "stripped off" teaching.  Because I respect you, nothing is left unanswered.

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Sorry you asked?

No but on the piano tuning tools page of this site, you will find the basic tools you need to start.

This training comes with 5 videos but it is also bundled with an easy to read eBook you can read while in a waiting room for example.  It even comes with an MP3 audio file you can carry and listen to the complete tutorial while driving your car.  Not to mention this other FREE bonus eBook on piano tuning by a famous technician.

INSTANT ACCESS!  As soon your payment on secure server is completed, you will receive a confirmation with a link to the download page.  Since the tutorial is downloaded to your machine, you will have 7/24 access so you can learn at your own pace.

I charge $105US but as an apprentice, you might want to lower your rates to something like $70US at the beginning.  Once you reach a good understanding of the trade and your skills are up to standard then you can charge as much as I do.  Don't forget to charge more if there the client is at an hour drive from your business.   I don't believe you can honestly tune more than 4 pianos/day but figure it out by yourself, 4 X $70 = $280US/day is NOT bad!

This all depends on you abilities and talent.  Generally in the first year, you WILL NOT charge anything to tune your friend's piano or the Church Hall piano.  People are kind enough to let you "practice" on their beloved piano so charging them a fee on top make no sense.  You can accept tips though!

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63 Comments sur “ The Piano Tuning Tutorial Video 01”

  1. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

    At the upper most keys I can’t hear beats any more. Hardly can even discern the pitch, but that’s all I have to go by. After braking a string I understand why the last two tones are my piano are already running on two I istead of three strings ..
    The piano is very noisy (echo responsive) and the hammers heads are quite hard (harsh).

    1. At the upper section let’s say the last octave and a half, you tune by repeating the notes and when you can hear the sound is VERY TIGHT and PERCUSSIVE, it means that it is in tune. This goes for both octaves and unisons on the very top of the treble region (the last 1.5 octave)
      The upper treble have no sustain so you need to tune it with the attack portion by repeating the note(s).
      Also when their are to much false beats, starting this technique at the first note that DON’T HAVE ANY DAMPER (usually F# is the last damped note) will help you tune better.

  2. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply

    In the upper treble region, where tuning is done by octaves, can you please elaborate on the reason why it is necessary to establish the exact frequency of the lower tone in the octave (using the the ETD)?

    1. Hi Eitan,

      Sorry I don’t understand your question. Please elaborate…

      1. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

        I was referring to this section: “…
        Pretty soon in low quality pianos, the tuner won’t display clearly when reading the higher
        treble strings. Therefore, we have to tune by ear using the octave.
        I check at which frequency the note from the lower octave have settled and I compensate
        by tuning higher with the corresponding numbers of beats added.
        I check the frequency of the lower octave by adjusting my tuner until the needle is right in
        the center. If I am using a tuner with a stroboscopic display, as in this video, I adjust until
        the bars remains stable. When the bars neither rise nor fall, the frequency displayed is the
        frequency of the note relative to A440.
        For example, if the lower octave is at A440, in order to tune the higher octave to 445, I will
        tune it sharp by adding 5 beats per seconds.”
        Re-reading I realize that this the way we ensure we are continuing the upper curve to maintain the 445 tuning more or less, correct?

        1. Ah I see now. You are referring to the OPTION #2: “Raising the pitch (to tuning standard A=440Hz) with an electronic tuner (ETD)

          You understood right.

          The Electronic Tuning Device (ETD) have a hard time reading the extreme sections of the piano. On the lower basses and the upper treble sections you wont see anything on the electronic tuner for it can NOT read those sections. So you have to rely solely on your ears to do so.

          When you reach this upper treble section, you have already tuned the middle section to A=443Hz right? So if you need to tune the upper octaves by ear to A=445Hz, then you would think you can just tune it by ear adding 2 beats/sec beating rate don’t you think? FALSE! Why! because the middle section you’ve just tuned before to A=445Hz as already drop down but you don’t know for sure where. Is the lower note at A=443Hz? Is it at A=441Hz? You don’t know unless you measure it with the electronic tuning machine (ETD) Chances are the middle section is already lowered to A=440Hz. But let’s not take any chances on that and let’s measure it. If the machine tuner reads the lower note is at 442Hz then, you will need to compensate by ear by adding 3 beats/sec beating rate of the upper note of the octave you are tuning. On the other hand, if the machine reads the lower note is at 439Hz, then you will need to compensate by ear by adding 6 beats/sec beating rate on the upper note of the octave you are tuning.

          But you don’t need this when you perform a “regular tuning” that is, a precision tuning when the piano is at or close to A=440Hz already. All the octaves are tuned beatless by ear without using the electronic tuning device.

          1. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :

            Thanks for that detailed explanation Mario.
            I’m sure you explained it somewhere but I can’t find how we know by how many cents we compensate by (I understand this is a compensation for inharmonicity, yes?) – and, is it one compensation for the whole upper range or does it increment as we go up the scale (and by how much)?

          2. Mario Bruneau says :

            Hi Eitan,

            You DON’T tune octaves with the machine or with the Excel formula. You tune octaves BY EAR.

            By tuning the octave by ear, the compensation for inharmonicity will occur naturally.


  3. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

    Why should I be removing the key end blocks and dip bar? It seems I can tune without doing so.

    1. Obviously you don’t need to remove end blocks and key dip bar. Where did you get this information?

      1. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

        My misunderstanding.

  4. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

    Some observations as I proceed this immensly gratifying journey….
    It seems that the lower pins are always looser. I suppose that’s because the pressure is reduced by the upper two strings as I move up.
    Interesting phenomenon- sometimes difficult to tune the unison due to false beats in the strings themselves but when we add the third string, pure unison is achieved.
    The temperament felt provided in the full kit is shedding. I was also a tad short. I ordered another from Howards.
    The Papps mute in the kit is also lacking. Too flexible, and not enough span compared to the one I ordered separately from Amazon.
    All in all the process is smooth and efficient!

    1. Thanks for your observations.

      The lower pins are looser because they are tuned to octave and tuning octaves is more difficult than unisons. So, the first string of the 3 strings unisons is moved more than the #2 and #3 strings.

      When the false beat is eliminated by tuning the thirds string unison it means that you tuned the third string off a little. This is done naturally by ear son you don’t know that the third string is a little bit out of tune in the process of eliminating the beats.

      The “cheap” tuning tools kit found on Amazon is NOT the best. It is better to get a kit from a renowned piano tuning tools maker.

      1. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

        I was referring to the tool kit you linked to on your Tools page.

  5. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

    In option 2, probably best practice would be to disable the ETD’s listening\learning function that is trying to provide a compensation for the specific piano’s enharmonicity. The ETD doesn’t understand what we are doing with the curve.

    1. Yes you are right. Don’t use the ETD’s listening/learning function for option 2 but also, I advise not to use this function anyway on any pianos.

      When tuning octaves, your ears will automatically read the enharmonicity, don’t rely on the machine for octaves on a regular tuning like in option #3.

  6. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

    Hi Mario,
    When doing the initial pitch raise according to the curve (option 2), is there a specific definition of which notes begin third (444) and fourth (445) sections?

    1. No specific notes because all pianos are different so the treble can be starting at B for one piano and for another piano, the treble could be starting at note D.

      Same goes for the higher section.

      You just need to follow the basic concept, you start with the bass section bringing it up to A442. Then the middle section to A443 and the higher sections to A444 and so on…

      1. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

        What are you referring to when you say ‘the treble’. Is it a gap in the pins?

        1. Hi Eitan,

          I am referring to the 3 sections in a piano.

          The different sections of the piano

  7. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply


    What is the best practice in regards to the time to be given between option 2 and 3 tunings?

    1. Hello Ethan,


      It is a false theory that the piano’s strings need some time to “settle”

      Those people who state this are no good at piano tuning lever manipulation and know little about the physics surrounding piano tuning.

      After the option #2, the piano is at 440Hz just like if it was tuned less than a year ago so at this point, you tune with a “precise” regular tuning

  8. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply


    I option 3:
    “This note at the end of the middle section is important. The second and third strings have been tuned at the beginning, and if they are out of tune now, this mean there might be a problem.”
    When were two strings in the same note tuned t the beginning?

    1. Hi Ethan,

      The option #3 is when you perform a “regular” tuning. That is, the piano is on pitch A=440Hz and you want to fine tune it.

      You use the temperament strip to mute the first and third strings of ALL THE MIDDLE section. But the very last note on the treble side, you can NOT mute the third string with the temperament strip for obvious reasons. So when you have finished to lay out the temperament on the first octave of this middle section of the piano, you tune all the upper octaves by ear tuning the second string of all the notes since the temperament strip is still on place. When you arrive at the very last note i.e. the note on which the temperament strip can not mute the third string, you need the papp mute to tune first the third string to the octave below and then, the second string in unison and beatless to the third string. So this unison of the two last string is perfectly tuned and beatless at this point.

      After that, you tune all the unison by ear and beatless progressively removing the temperament strip starting on the first note of this middle section. So you will be building up the general tension of that section and it is possible that it will modify the very last unison you performed before on the very last note of the middle section. So before removing the temperament strip of that note, you check if IT IS STILL IN PERFECT UNISON AND BEATLESS. If it is not, then there could be a problem like, you under-evaluated the general pitch of the piano when you decided to perform a regular and precise tuning. It could be that the piano was at A438Hz when you started and you thought it could be tuned with only one tuning. So state of this last note of the middle section is important to evaluate your progress in the regular-precision tuning.

      1. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply


  9. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply

    Does the formation you teach here take the individual piano’s inharmonicity into account at any stage?

    1. Hi Ethan,

      The inharmonicity is explained at p34. We can read:

      Theoretically nodes occupy some space and thus slightly shorten the segments of the string. It is this phenomenon that creates the inharmonicity of the piano.
      The harmonics then have a tendency to go sharp.
      This is why you will always tune with a certain ‘stretch’
      WARNING! This will happen naturally, since your aim when tuning octaves will always be to tune
      « without any beats »
      You will « stretch » without doing anything special!

      But the different inharmonicity pertaining to any piano in specific is not covered.

      1. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply

        Perfect. Thanks!

  10. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply


    What would be the hand and body position when tuning a grand?

    1. Hi Ethan,

      If you’re 5’10 and under, you will tune standing up. If you are taller, you probably want to tune sitting down.

      The tuning lever position:

      The head is toward you and the handle is away from you like on the strings side. You hold it from 12 o’clock to 2 o’clock.

      Tuning lever position on a grand


      1. Ethan (Eitan) Greenberg says :Reply

        And you would still advocate the impact technique – adjusted to this position?

        1. Yes sure!

          The impact tuning lever technique is better IMO in any tuning position.

  11. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply


    Can you please explain this statement:”When we raise a piano that has fallen off pitch, precision is not 100% necessary for the unisons.” Why would that be?

    1. Hi Eitan,

      Thanks for your payment and for dropping by.

      When you raise the pitch of a piano, your goal is just to bring up the tension to 20 tons and put the piano to A=440Hz so precision is not necessary since you will perform a regular and precise tuning right after this first raising the pitch tuning.

      Also this first tuning is mostly done with the electronic tuning device (ETD) so you won’t tune by ear the octaves that much.

      But when performing the second and precise tuning, you really need the unisons perfect because you will rely on them for tuning the octaves by ear.


      1. Eitan Greenberg says :Reply

        Thank you. I very much enjoyed the read, and am now eager to start tuning just as soon as the tools arrive. I very much enjoyed the expertly composed materials. You provide an invaluable compaction of years of experience and learning, into a easy to follow guide – and at a very fair price.

        1. Thanks Eitan,

          I appreciate people like you taking the time to express your feelings about my piano tuning tutorial.

          Have fun!

  12. Nick Lukich says :Reply

    Loved the course. Will there be any additional courses. I would love to see an aural tuning course that spreads the temperment

    1. Hi Nick,

      Thanks for your kind words.

      I wont create another tutorial for the aural temperament tuning.

      But, the 4th chapter explain in details the equal temperament so you can figure out by yourself how to do it by ear on the piano.

      Beats are explained in details for you to understand the theory behind establishing the equal temperament by ear in the first octave of the middle section of the piano.


  13. Nick Lukich says :Reply

    I asked a question about hammer technique but the website removed it for some reason. I was asking if your course goes into greater detail than the youtube videos do?

    1. Sorry for that. Keep in mind that whenever you leave a comment on any website, your comment needs to be approved manually. Hence the delay responding.

  14. Nick Lukich says :Reply

    I watched the hammer technique videos on your youtube channel but I do not understand what is happening. It just looks like you are rubbing your palm against the ball of the hammer. I see no movements. Does your tuning course go into greater detail?

    1. Hi Nick, the movement of the tuning lever is very small that is why you hardly see any.
      This is just a small part from the complete tutorial which goes in greater details.

      1. Nick Lukich says :Reply

        thank you. Last question. I have a carbon fiber tuning hammer. It was super expensive but it doesn’t have the ball end. Should I purchase one that does?

        1. You write: “Last question” No problem here. You can ask as many questions you like. I am here to help people learn piano tuning.
          No need to get another tuning lever. The carbon fiber tuning levers usually do have a “pear” type of handle at the top of the tuning lever.
          So with your carbon fiber tuning lever, you will be able to experiment both tuning lever manipulation techniques that is: the “Inertia” standard technique almost all piano tuners use and the “Impact” technique that I recommend.

  15. Do the 5 lessons come on cds or cd video or are all five by internet for computer?

    1. Hi Francis,

      All the content is delivered from Cloud to your computer.

      5 videos covering the 5 chapters
      1 pdf eBook file with all the same content you can print
      1 audio mp3 file with all the same content you can listen in your car or elsewhere.
      1 BONUS eBook of Piano Tuning

      You also have the option to get them delivered to your home by regular mail on USB media for $257 USD.


  16. Kuo-Cheng says :Reply

    Dear Mario,

    I just come up with an idea about if different tuning procedures would affect tuning stability.

    For example.

    1. We play the key first, then, like listening/waiting for 0.5 second, then we start to pull or push the tuning hammer.


    2. We play the key and pull/push the tuning hammer simultaneously.

    It seems these two different procedures would result in variation of string vibration.

    In my opinion, the first procedure means the string is already vibrating before tuning hammer starts to move.

    And in the second procedure, the tuning hammer moves when the string is silent/still, no vibration.

    Which might yield better tuning ability?

    Please kindly share your thoughts with me.

    Thank you in advance.

    Best regards,


    1. Hi Kuo,

      The tuning stability comes with mastering the tuning lever manipulation, not with the two situations you describe here.

      In both situations you describe here, you start manipulating the tuning lever immediately.

      For #1 situation, in the tutorial I explain that whether or not you’re manipulating the tuning lever, it is after 5 seconds that your hearing will be more accurate and precise. At the very beginning after playing the note, you change pitch broadly and towards the 5th seconds, your range of going up or down the desired pitch will narrow and you will be more precise. Usually when you finish tuning the string at the 5th or more seconds, you know that the tuning is PERFECT and you have no doubt about it because you heard the difference so much better than for the 4 first seconds of the process.

      1. We play the key first, then, like listening/waiting for 0.5 second, then we start to pull or push the tuning hammer.

      No, you start manipulating the tuning lever right away.

      2. We play the key and pull/push the tuning hammer simultaneously.

      Yes but if you finish placing the string after the 5 first seconds, you will be more accurate. But also, you will find it easyer to tune after 5 seconds because your ears will hear more precisely than at the beginning after playing the note.

      … And in the second procedure, the tuning hammer moves when the string is silent/still, no vibration.

      Absolutely not. Never you move the tuning hammer when the string is not into vibration. Too dangerous to break a string.

      Which might yield better tuning ability?

      #1 situation yields better results. But you will sometimes achieve tuning the string in the first 5 seconds. This rule of “after 5 seconds” is just a basic tip not really a “rule” or a method. Just a tip to use like when you are having a hard time tuning a specific string. At one point in your tuning experience, you will notice that and it will be obvious then and you will understand it better.

  17. Joel Choy says :Reply

    Hello Mario, I have always wanted to learn the proper aural tuning theory and method. I have successfully been tuning with tunelab for many years. Recently I want to learn the professional way of tuning not Fischer’s method which I also used before. I think I understand how to get the temperament using the aural 4th and 5th interval method but I want to be able to master it at ease. Also I think I understand how to set A to 440 tuning fork by using tuning octave above the tuning fork A and using the rule of same number of beats between M3 and Major 10. It was on youtube. Anyway to make my story short, I am interested in learning the complete aural tuning tricks of the trade with just the A tuning fork and not Fischer’s setting the temperament of octaves covering middle C with the C tuning fork and using the dampened 5th to tune. I want to learn the proper way of tuning using internals and how to use internals to double check my tunings as well. Do your videos cover these aural techniques in depth. I am not interested in learning how to use Petersen tuning machine, i.e. I already am using the best visual tuning app, tunelab and want to tune like in the RPT exam. However, I am too old and retired already and not interested in pursuing something like what the piano technician academey offers to become a successful professional piano tuner. I am just interested in able to tune with the proper aural methods.

    1. Hi Joel,

      My tutorial targets beginners and it does not cover the aural setting of the temperament in practice but all the theory pertaining to the equal temperament is covered in deep.

      You will have a better understanding of what to listen to and what harmonics are involved in setting the equal temperament by ear.

      Plus, your general knowledge of the piano will be highly improved as well. Both the physics involved and the historic elements to better understand the piano’s evolution.

      But, you won’t see me tune the equal temperament by ear on this tutorial.


  18. can I upload your course on my chrome goggle computer?

    1. Hi Francis,

      Yes sure. The videos are compatible in all machines. Same for the pdf and the audio files.

      Thanks for dropping by.

  19. George Isidorou says :Reply

    Hi Mario, could I receive a completion certificate of your courses?
    Best regards
    I. George

    1. Hi George,

      We have no record here about you purchasing the Piano Tuning Tutorial.

      I don’t send completion certificate either.


  20. Jens-Joachim Muth says :Reply

    Hi Mario,

    thank you for your profund work. Teaching the impact tuning method seems to me the best, the one and only way to handle the pins in the pinblock.

    I didn’t watch every minute of your videos until now, but I miss more detailed practical exercise instruction video how to push the lever with my hand/palm/fingers, not only for upright piano but for grand piano too.

    I am a bit disappointed for there is no more instruction for that in your videos than in your free youtube video which is to me really the essence of your work. But I realized you do it with a free wrist and an all over good posture – very convincing. I am also a teacher of F.M. Alexander technique so I estimate good use of myself and the tools.

    I am a violinist in Hamburg Germany playing with Kent Nagano who is in Montreal too. I like tuning our upright Hoffmann and our Steinway B myself since nearly 30 years with ETD, with better and better results. From beginning I was aware of never bending but only turning the pins, but my turning was too slow. I realized late but not too late how valuable for best sound totally pure unisons are. I used Tunelab and Entropy tuner but now prefer Easy Piano Tuner, (Android) which is simple and gives very good results.

    I can really recommend Easy Piano Tuner for anybody who does not completely tune aurally.
    The Peterson IStroboSoft you recommend doesn’t calculate any inharmonycity or stretch, right?

    Some weeks ago I bought Jahn carbon tuning hammer with extra extension and Mahagony ball, working much easier than my standard tools before.
    Can’t stop playing one Haydn sonata after the other in the night, enjoying the sound, really excited after tuning 🙂

    The pure impact tuning method is still quite new for me but totally convincing, pure unisons and permanent.
    I would like to thank you for you emphasizing, making better known and teaching this method.


    1. admin says :Reply

      Hi Jens,

      Thanks for your kind words and input to my piano tuning tutorial.

      I started tuning pianos with the inertia method like everybody but soon shifted to the impact method without being totally conscious of the switch at first. The switch from inertia to impact method came naturally.

      It is only in Vienna when I did my training that Sibin Slatzkovick presented me with a ball handle tuning lever upon noticing my impact type tuning lever manipulation.

      Yes indeed, unisons can be tuned but can also be perfectly tuned. There is a big difference. Tuning beatless is NOT the only goal a piano tuner should aim at. You have to take into consideration the timbre change that occur when a unison is PERFECT and nothing less thant PERFECT! I am glad you did grasp this notion.

      You write:

      The Peterson IStroboSoft you recommend doesn’t calculate any inharmonycity or stretch, right?

      You’re right, iStroboSoft from Peterson does NOT calculate inharmonycity or stretch but you don’t need this feature. This is all done by ear! The stretch will occur naturally if you do TUNE OCTAVES BEATLESS.

      Carbon tuning hammers are the best for precision and comfort.

      I wish you the best of fun tuning pianos with the impact method.

      best regards
      Mario Bruneau

      1. Jens-Joachim Muth says :Reply

        Hi Mario,

        thank you.
        Few days ago I came to tune a friend’s old Danish upright piano. My experience was that nearly every pin was unusually loose, I never had a piano like that before. All my intentions were to maintain the pure impact method. But especially in the treble even the tiniest impacts to tune down were too much, and I’ve always overstepped the exact point. In this situation, I felt forced to return to the inertia method.

        I feel we all have to learn what is really working in a new situation. What are you doing when handling with very loose pins? Any advice?

        Best wishes


        1. Hi Jens,

          My take on this matter is that if the impact method don’t work on a situation of too loose pins, you need to address the tightness of the pins.

          You have to check if there is enough space between the plate and the string coil around the pin.

          Tuning pins

          If there is enough space, you can punch the pin further inside the pinblock to tighten the pin.


          Mario Bruneau

  21. Lars Nielsen says :Reply

    Hi, can you send me a link to the download page, it say fail 404 no file, when i try

    1. admin says :Reply

      Hi Lars,
      Thank you for your payment.
      Sorry about the inconvenient.
      We’ve just completed an overall configuration change in both the website and server, hence this error message.
      Welcome to PianoTuningHowTo.
      Mario Bruneau

  22. SAVERIO SALERNO says :Reply

    Volevo chiedere quanto costa il corso completo in EURO.

    1. Mario Bruneau says :Reply

      Ciao, grazie per il tuo commento. Il corso completo è di 205 €, ma nota che è disponibile in inglese e in francese troppo.